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Meiosis.

What do you think about it right now?  I'd say it's the cell division concerning sexual reproduction.

Now that's gotta hold your attention.  First and formost, you guys need to know what gametes are.  So...

1)What are Gametes?

They are the little things you call the sperm from a male and the egg from a female.  "Gamete" is just a fancy, general word for them.  As you probably know, a male and a female "do the dirty" if you know what I mean.  I mean if they really didn't want to have a kid, then they could have just used contraception for goodness sakes.  But, surprisingly some people do want kids, and reproduce.  

That is what the gametes are for - to go on to create zygotes (which was already explained in the "Mitosis" part of this series) which go on to mitosis and grow into a fetus, mitosis, then finally "popping out" as a baby.  Of course mitosis happens almost all the time when regenerating new body cells but I won't go into that again.  This article is about MEIOSIS.

In a nutshell, a zygote is pretty much the product of a sperm and an egg.  The thing that is entirely different from Mitosis is that the chromosome numbers change throughout.

2)Chromosome Number Changes

Let's try to make this seem as simple as possible.

*All organisms start of as a zygote, with 46 chromosomes in each cell
*They go through mitosis (cell division for growth) for a particularly long period of time I expect and then become an adult.  w00t! Legal!  Now they will still hold the same amount as before - 46 chromosomes in each cell
*Now is when the numbers go all haywire. In each gamete, there would only be 23 chromosomes.  The process in creating these 23 chromosome in each sex cell would obviously be meiosis
*Through fertilisation, the male's sperm would reach the female's egg and then eventually create what you all call a zygote.
*The two gametes together would make 46 chromosomes again, 23 from each parent depicting different randomised characteristics.
*The 46 chromosomes would accord to the zygote
*So then mitosis would occur, hence the child would still have 46 chromosomes in each body cell.
*The child grows up to be an adult... and you get the idea.  The process would go on.

3)What is Meiosis anyways?
Meiosis is a little harder to explain than Mitosis was but I'll try my "very very best" to help you all.  Besides, I have my trusty Science Workbook to help me through this study, as you call it.  Writing articles seems to be more interesting than reading over the same damned notes over and over again.  I suggest you try writing down your own articles to help yourself understand the content better, but if you're much too lazy, I guess you'll just have to read my article.  *Oh dear*

Meiosis is basically the cell division process which helps to make gametes [sex cells] from ordiinary 46-chromosome cells.  It is the process that is vital in sexual reproduction.

If it didn't exist, we wouldn't be here.  The animals wouldn't be here.  Even the plants wouldn't be here.  Don't you see the importance of meiosis.  I guess it would be impossible for it not to exist since we are here in this instance.  Just shut me up.  I'm talking shit again.

4)Basic Facts about Meiosis
*Meiosis only occurs in the sexual organs of an organisms
*It results of making sex cells called gametes
*Four daughter cells are produced
*Each of the cells produced are entirely unique and have a different genetic make up
*This increases the genetic variation and improves a species survival
*Each cell produced from this cell division would have half the set of chromosomes of their parents (eg.  a human has 46 chromosomes in a cell so the daughter cells from meiosis would count up 23 chromosomes

5)The Process
What really does happen in the process of Meiosis?  Hmm... well be prepared for some deja vu because some parts of the meiosis process are similar to that of the Mitosis process.  I say similar, because they are not exactly the same.

NB.  If you are a little stupid (like me x_x) chromosomes are lengthwise, not little blobs!

*First of all, there are cells, right?  And in the cells are chromosomes.  The example I will use here would be a cell with 2 pairs of chromosomes.  Let's call them homologous.

Homologous means two pairs with the same type of chromosomes in each.

*In the centre of each chromosome is a centrometre which is obviously at the centre of the cell.  The chromosomes are duplicated but still remain attached at the centrometre.

*Spindle fibres from each "pole" of the cell attach to the centrometres and the chromosomes line up in homologous pairs in the centre of the cell.

*The spindle fibres attached from each pole become a little shorter and seperate the homologous pairs, so there's one type of chromosome on each side of the cell.

*The spindle fibres disappear and the cell forms a waistlike formation and splits into two seperate cells.

*In their new seperate cells, the spindle fibres recreate and the chromosomes are lined up in the centre of the cells.

*The spindle fibres get shorter and pull each chromosome apart so the chromatids move to the opposite ends of the cells.

*The cells again form a waistlike structure and then would finally split into a total of four daughter cells altogether.

Phew.  Now, aren't I exhausted?  I hope that you understand my explanation - even just a little bit, because I kind of understand it a little more too.

6)Simple Steps
Maybe you would like to remember the process a little better without having to recite the whole sentences I provided.  Here's a quick and easy note guide.

*Homologous chromosomes
*Replication
*Line up in homologous
*Pairs seperate
*Two cells
*Chromosomes to centre
*Chromatids to poles
*Four cells

6)Extra Know-how stuff
During meiosis, when the homologous pairs are lined up in the centre, the paired chromosomes kinda "wrap" around each other and swap little tiny chunks of genes, like sending and swapping emails, or any other comparison you could make.  In human, there would be about ten crossovers per chromosome.  Imagine that?  That mean that there would be 230 crossovers in one cell.  

So these little chromosomes know what to do to make everyone a little more unique.

7)Conclusion
I'm tired, it's late at 12.20am and Im glad that I have finally finished my little study on Meiosis - at last.  I found it a little frustrating but the motivation to write an article about it gave me a little encouragement.  I hope that I have taught you well about this particular subject and I am sure that these facts are correct.  I mean, I had a bloody Science Workbook with me guiding me throughout this article.

So thanks to the school for even supplying me with this workbook.  It would help me a lot through the rest of my study.

YEESH.

And as I told you for the last article, I will tell you guys once again how to tell the differences between Meiosis and Mitosis.

How I remember it?  

I just think Mitosis, my toes grow hence Mitosis is the cell division regarding growth!  w00t!  Smartass alert, heh?

I don't think it sounds very appealing but the mnemonic works!

Until next time.

Peace out and goodnight.
Another attempt to study for a bit - writing an article on the topic certainly improves my knowledge about Meiosis. Just 3.5 hours ago, I wouldn't have known how to explain what happens in the process of meiosis but now I do!!! YAY FOR ME.

Read this and devour your mind
Add a Comment:
 
:iconnhipkat867:
nhipkat867 Featured By Owner Feb 5, 2014  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Thank you! I came to a new school in the middle of the year (after staying at home for 6 months) and this article saved my butt! XD YOU saved my butt! :iconhappyblueplz:
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:iconpatd1213:
PATD1213 Featured By Owner Jan 25, 2013
I'm taking Genetics and Meiosis has always been tricky for me, but this cleared things up thank you!!!!
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:iconstudentoftheyear:
studentoftheyear Featured By Owner Dec 7, 2012
God Bless you boss...stay happy...plz whenever you write an article send it me ...thx bro

brokenangel_1988@yahoo.com
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:iconhollysky:
hollysky Featured By Owner Apr 4, 2012  Hobbyist
Now I can pass my final! XD
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:icongraywolf009:
graywolf009 Featured By Owner Dec 11, 2011  Hobbyist General Artist
I literally exclaimed to the computer when reading this "I LOVE YOU" not in the weirdo way but the thank you SO much way *w*
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:iconsanddust:
Sanddust Featured By Owner Oct 1, 2011
yay! you helped me alot! i LOVE YOU!
Reply
:iconcloversandfairydust:
CloversAndFairydust Featured By Owner Aug 21, 2011  Student
thank you so much!! i love you!
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:iconredrobin22:
RedRobin22 Featured By Owner Mar 31, 2011
This was funny to read. It was the first time that science made me smile. Thanks for your help :) hopefully i pass my test!! this helped me understand it a bit more than i did before :) Thanks again
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:iconsushirice25:
sushirice25 Featured By Owner Feb 16, 2011  Student General Artist
thx, i needed this for my hw....@blitzgun, i'm learning this at thirteen, but i don't get it, if it makes you feel any better
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:iconstella22:
Stella22 Featured By Owner Oct 31, 2010
YAY! Thankyou :) I'm doing this EXACT thing for my NCEA exam and you might have just saved my life a tiny little bit. Thummmbbbsss up.
Reply
:iconblitzgun:
blitzgun Featured By Owner Dec 14, 2009
Error: Only humans have 46 chromosomes.

Pretty pathetic that you were 13 when you learned this, and I'm 18 and just learning it now.

YAY, CANADA AND THE US ARE BEHIND EVERYBODY BUT 3rd WORLD COUNTRIES!
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:iconshikamarugirl7:
Shikamarugirl7 Featured By Owner Jan 6, 2008
you know, I was thinking about writing about my biology homework in which I'm supposed to explain meiosis and mitosis
I didn't go into it that much but meiosis is what confused me, hence me looking up meiosis for dummies
still, I couldn't understand my book
it's retarded
I'll take a better look at this see if it helps
Reply
:iconcalenure:
calenure Featured By Owner Nov 12, 2005
Oy, "fases" is spelled with a "ph" in English mister.
Another good job:)
While Legend is right, there's parts definitely missing, and it would be nice to include the stages.. your basic explanation is good. As long as you understand it, is all that matters.

Can I bother you and your readers with another boring fact about Meiosis? :) Actually its quite fantastic and has nothing to do with Meiosis.. well sort of!

It has been our belief that ... Men undergo Meiosis throughout life.... constantly producing sperm. This we know. It has also been our belief that ... Women undergo Meiosis only while she is in the womb forming as an embryo. As her body forms, so do her egg cells so that when she is born, that's her only stash. Hence, given a few million eggs, they die, never mature, you menstruate, you have children, and when you're old you "run out" thus, menopause. WELL.. we were wrong!!
In a recent study, scientists were actually trying to answer some questions about sperm. HOWEVER, it required some study on female mice first. What they found was...... the numbers didn't add up. And the male doctors from 50-70 years ago had it wrong. They proved women continue to make new eggs just like men continue to make new sperm. Menopause is the stop of that process, NOT the running out of eggs. This is so revolutionary -- several scientists are racing to recreate this process to make it the new line of thinking and to help those women who develop cancer at a young age. Due to chemotherapy and radiation, up until now... they've been told they could no longer have children due to it mutating and destroying the eggs as a side effect. Now they know, they can temporarily remove the cells, have the female survive cancer, replace them and she can have children again.

Science rocks.
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:iconshikamarugirl7:
Shikamarugirl7 Featured By Owner Jan 6, 2008
this won't help mje on my homework but this was very interesting
I won't ask for specifics because then I probably wouldn't understand
Reply
:iconlaceduplolita:
laceduplolita Featured By Owner Nov 12, 2005
Boring? Bollocks. :clap: Another bunch of interesting information!

Sooo, we make new eggs as we grow. Shame to those bloody scientists who got it all wrong *cough* *cough* but with this knowledge that if a woman has cancer and the radiation and stuff, then they could have babies with the replaced cells...

I never knew about the menopause thing either. I thought that all the eggs would be destroyed - never being able to give birth ever again. But sperm kinda runs out for men, right? I mean that's why old guys need that... ARGH... that's just disgusting from my point of view now!!

Yes, and science wouldn't be my favourite subject but it sure adds a few interesting facts throughout my life. I've always been a little curious about anthropology and how we were all derrived from neatherandals or whatever that word is. OFF TOPIC...

I should just go now. Bye!
Reply
:iconcalenure:
calenure Featured By Owner Nov 13, 2005
Hahaha. I'm glad you think so! :)
Yes, it WAS believed that women ran out of their stored # of eggs and *bam* menopause. However, they figured out that it was the MATH that was wrong. (Who'da thunk it) Don't quote me on the numbers, but so you get the point... when females are fetuses in the womb they have some 7 million egg cells, by the time they're born, several have died already bringing them to like 3 million, come to the age of 13 and sexual maturity, females would only have some 300,000 egg cells left. Mathematically it was impossible for a woman to be able to conceive into her 50's ... with the rate that egg cells die. That's what triggered them to test further. Crazy huh :P (Im a biologist and in a Vertebrate Embryology course 2 years ago, we studied this test)

Similarly, men sperm dont run out, they just stop producing them ;) Biology knows that their genes are too old, to weathered and too mutated by now to produce viable offspring. ^.^
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:iconlegendofthe3monkeys:
Legendofthe3monkeys Featured By Owner Nov 12, 2005
you're missing a little detail there... the name of the fases of meiosis & mitosis.

Profase metafase anafase telofase and diacinesis for mitosis. for meiosis, after the first diacinesis there's a fase called the S fase and another row of profase metafase anafase and telofase.

do you know what happens in each one of these fases?
Reply
:iconshikamarugirl7:
Shikamarugirl7 Featured By Owner Jan 6, 2008
wow seriosly, I knew about mitosis having the phases but my book didn't much explain meiosis
it basically just says that it's a 2-stage process (first & second meiotic divisions or meiosis I & II) during which the # of crhomosomes is halved but it's confusing me
Reply
:iconlaceduplolita:
laceduplolita Featured By Owner Nov 12, 2005
in our grading NCEA we don't necessarily have to know all that until next year but maybe i will try and add that later on. the thing is, i'm not going to take any science next year so it would probably all mean nothing to me.

i've kinda heard about it. like meiosis goes through double stages i guess, because of the two cell divisons...

maybe you could tell me about each phase. i'm kinda stuck there for a bit. I have a relative idea but not exact...
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